Onion farming as a vegetable crop. Its fruits found in the roots of plants. Apart from this, onion also called by the name Kanda in many places. Moreover, Onion used both as a spice and as a vegetable. Many types of nutrients found in it, due to which consuming onion is beneficial for the body. Along with this, it also cultivated in medicinal form and used in making medicines. Onion mainly reduces radiation.
In the summer season, it considered suitable to eat onions to avoid heatstroke. However, its cultivation requires more water. In India, onion cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and other states. The demand for onion remains the same throughout the year, due to which onion cultivation can done on a profitable farm.
Onion Farming & Popular Varieties:-
Rabi Variety Onions
Onion cultivation done in the Rabi season gives a higher yield. This variety grown in the winter season and transplanted in the months of November and December. The varieties grown in the Rabi season are as follows:- Pusa Ratnar, Agrifound Light Red, Agrifound Rose, Bhima Red, Bhima Shakti and Pusa Red etc.
Kharif varieties rarely grown. Its onion planted in the middle of May and June and designed to cultivate Bhima Super, Pusa White Round, Agrifound Dark Red and Bhim Dark Red varieties in the Kharif season.
Agrifound Dark Red
This variety of onions grown in the summer season and produced in almost all the places in India. Its tubers are spherical and are ready to yield about 100 to 110 days after sowing the seeds. This variety gives a yield of about 300 quintals per hectare.
It takes 110 to 115 days to prepare this variety of onions. Therefore, it grown as a late variety at the time of the Kharif crop. This variety gives a yield of 250 to 300 quintals per hectare.
Agrifound Light Red
Plants of this variety are ready to give yield within 120 days. This variety grown during the Rabi season. The tubers’ colour is light red, and the shape is circular. This variety of onions gives a yield of 300 to 375 quintals per hectare.
Pusa White Round
This variety of onions becomes ready to give yield after 135 days of transplanting. The tubers coming out in it are white. This variety provides a yield of 300 quintals per hectare.
Suitable Soil, Climate And Temperature
Onion cultivation can done in any fertile soil, but sandy loam soil considered suitable for its cultivation. Onion produced in the form of bulbs, so it should not cultivated in waterlogged land. For its crop, 5 to 6 pH valued land required.
Onion cultivation can done in cold and hot climates according to the place, but onion cultivation in a cold environment gives a good yield. The frost falling in the winter season is harmful to its plants. | Onion crop can tolerate a maximum temperature of 30 degrees and a minimum of 15 degrees.
Field Preparation And Fertilizer Quantity
To prepare the onion field, first, deep ploughing done. After which, the field left open like this for some time. After this, 15 to 20 carts of old cow dung manure added per hectare as natural manure in the field. Then, after applying manure, the field ploughed again, due to which the dung manure gets mixed well in the field’s soil. Finally, if you want, you can also use vermicompost manure. For this, at the time of the last ploughing of the field, nitrogen 40 kg, potash 20 kg, and sulphur 20 kilograms per acre have to ploughed in the field.
After mixing the cow dung well in the soil, it pulverised by applying water. Then it left like this for some time. After that, when the ground starts appearing dry from above, its rotavator ploughing done well by any powerful tractor because there are numerous tractor companies in India, which are reliable. Due to this, the soil of the field becomes friable. For planting tubers in the flat soil, the meadows prepared to keep a distance of one foot.
Seeds Planting Season And Method
Onion seeds planted in the form of seedlings. Before planting their tubers in the field, the plants prepared in the nursery one to two months before. Apart from this, you can buy its plants from any registered nursery if you want. This will save you time, and yield will also obtained soon. The plants should absolutely healthy and 2 months old at the time of purchasing the plants. Its plants planted on both sides of the prepared bund.
Plants planted on the ridge at a distance of 5 to 7 cm. If you want to transplant the plants at the time of Kharif, then the month of August known to be the most ideal. On the other hand, if you want to transplant the seedlings during the Rabi season, it considered reasonable to plant the plants from December to January. Before planting the plants in the field, their roots treated with the appropriate amount of monocrotophos and carbendazim. This reduces the risk of disease during plant development.
For irrigation of onion plants, it considered best to use the drip method. Its crop requires 10 to 12 irrigations. The first irrigation of its plants done immediately after transplanting. After that, light irrigation must done for a month to maintain the moisture in the field. After this, when the tubers start developing, during that time, the plants need water at intervals of two to three days.
Weed control is more required in onion cultivation because the pests caused by weeds harm the plants. The natural method is used for weed control, but while weeding the plants, take special care of the roots of the tubers. After hoeing, the soil is applied to the roots of the plants, and its plants require only 5 hoeings. Apart from this, Pendimethylene has to be sprayed in the field when weeds are more.
Harvesting, Yield And Benefits
Onion plants are ready to give yield after 4 to 5 months of transplanting. When the leaves of its plants turn yellow and fall, its fruits are plucked during that time. After this, the tubers are excavated and dried thoroughly for two to three days. After drying, the root and leaves are separated. Later, they dry well in a shady place.
About 250 to 450 quintals of onion are acquired from a one-hectare field. However, if the farmers want, then both of its yields can yield up to 800 quintals. According to this, farmer brothers can earn a good amount of 3 to 4 lakhs in a year.
So, the above-mentioned details were the complete process of Onion farming. Also, these points will help you to generate higher income along with high-quality yield. Moreover, if a farmer wants to increase the farm productivity, he can utilise any powerful farming machine, such as a tractor or any other equipment.
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